Vectorborne and Zoonotic Diseases
What are vectorborne and zoonotic diseases? Vector-borne disease are caused by pathogens (bacteria, viruses, and parasites) that are transmitted between hosts by insects like fleas and mosquitoes, and also by ticks. Zoonotic diseases are diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans. Many vector-borne diseases are also considered zoonotic because they are maintained in nature by animals, and only occassionally transmitted to humans. Reportable vector-borne diseases in Montana and the pathogens that cause them include:
Colorado Tick Fever (Colorado tick fever virus)
Jamestown Canyon virus infection (Jamestown Canyon virus)
Plague (Yersinia pestis)
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (Rickettsia ricketsii)
Tick-borne relapsing fever (Borelia hermsii)
Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)
West Nile disease (West Nile virus)
Serologic testing can be used to confirm a suspected case of any reportable vector-borne disease in Montana. Testing for and confirming vector-borne diseases are two-step processes.
When using serology to confirm a vector-borne disease, TWO blood specimens are required as follows:
- acute sample (within 7 days of symptom onset),
- convalescent sample (2-4 weeks after acute)
Measuring IgG antibodies can determine whether a person has recently acquired infection because there will be a 4-fold rise in the IgG antibody titer. Clinical compatibility must also be determined.
*For more information on sample requirements and submission to the Montana Public Health Laboratory, please visit: http://www.dphhs.mt.gov/publichealth/lab/documents/Serology.pdf and click on "serology."
Please see the links provided below for more information on reportable vector-borne diseases and other reportable zoonotic diseases in Montana, including case definitions, reporting requirements, national and local surveillance data, as well as testing, treatment, and prevention information.
|CDC and Statewide Disease Information||Case Definition||Reporting Form||Lab Tests*|
|Brucellosis||Brucellosis||Case Report Form||Acute and convalescent IgM and IgG serology|
|Case Report Form||Acute and convalescent IgG serology|
|Hantavirus||Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome||Case Report Form||Acute Sin Nombre virus IgM and IgG serology|
|Jamestown canyon virus infection||California serogroup virus infection||Acute and convalescent IgG and IgM serology|
Colorado Tick Fever
|Coming soon!||Acute and convalescent IgG serology|
|Psittacosis||Ornithosis (Chlamydia psittaci)||Case Report Form|
|Plague||Plague (Yersinia pestis)||Case Report Form||Acute and convalescent IgG serology|
|Q Fever||Q Fever (Coxiella burnetii)||Case Report Form||Acute and convalescent IgG serology|
|Rabies||Case Report Form|
|Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever||RMSF||Case Report Form||Acute and convalescent IgG serology|
|Tickborne Relapsing Fever||Coming soon!||Case Report Form||Acute and convalescent IgG serology|
|Trichinellosis||Trichinellosis (Trichinella)||Case Report Form|
|Tularemia||Tularemia||Case Report Form||Acute and convalescent IgG serology|
|Case Report Form||Acute and convalescent West Nile virus IgM and IgG serology|